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The Way to Success

Author: Donald

Earth’s Beginnings: The Evolution of Life on Earth

Earth, the planet in which we live is about 4.5 billion years old. Due to the presence of water, Earth is also known as watery planet or blue planet. Out of all planets, Earth is the only planet that contains both oxygen and water and therefore supports life. But, why it is the only planet? Is does earth made of some specific type of matter? Do some special types of processes were involved in the formation of Earth? Certainly no. Then, why other planets neglect life and are not considered as the Earth. The answer can be predicted by knowing the evolution of life on Earth. If we know how life started and which things actually happen at that time, we can find why Earth is the only planet where life is possible. Keep on reading this article for knowing about the evolution of life on Earth.

How Earth Formed?

Although there is a no fact that can tell us how exactly life originated, what exactly happened and why it happened? But, through the help of fossil records, many questions related to life’s beginnings have been answered by scientists and researchers. It is because of oldest fossils called zircon crystals that many predications about life’s existence have been made by researchers. Two gases called helium and hydrogen led to the formation of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago. The sun was formed from gases and dust particles and then continued to shrink because of some gravitational forces. Then, these gravitational forces of sun lead to a process called nuclear fusion. This process give out heat, light and other radiations. As the process happened, the gas and dust particles that surrounded the sun form into small chunks called planetesimals or modern day planets. Then, the Earth was passed through three particular stages – Hadean, Archean, and Proterozoic. During these stages, many gases such as methane, ammonia, nitrogen, hydrochloric acid, etc. was formed through various volcanic eruptions that occur besieged the Earth. The earlier structure that was surrounded by dust and debris was changed into a solid sphere that was pulled towards an orbit of the sun.

  • About 3.8 billion years ago, a prokaryotic cell called bacteria was formed
  • Then after 570 million years, molecular life was evolved with arthropods, fishes, plants and animals
  • Then, after 200, 00 years, the Homo sapiens species was also founded by scientists.

History of earth

Some Theories on the Origin of Life

  1. Panspermia – According to this theory, life was brought to earth from any other place in the space. It states that some meteorites or microbes (micro-organisms) reach to earth through some activities created by rocks and other material.
  2. Electric Spark – Researchers assume that light may have provided the spark which is required for the beginning of life. According to Miller-Urey experiment, electric sparks lead to the generation of amino acids, sugars, methane, water, hydrogen and other things present in the atmosphere are required for surviving on Earth
  3. Cold Start – It was happened that ice might have covered the 5 oceans of the world 2 billion years ago. This ice might have prevented organic compounds (present in the water) from UV rays and harm from cosmic impacts. These compounds may have lead to the origin of life.
  4. Role Of Clay – According to Alexander Graham Cairns, an organic chemist, clay are the first molecules of life. And these molecules might have concentrated several organic compounds together and help them to grow like genes. Working in this fashion, these compounds might evolve into necessary things required for surviving on Earth.
  5. Simple Start – It is not just the RNA or DNA molecules have led to the origin of life. But, life could also be started from smaller, simple molecules that interact with one another and undergo many reactions. Other complex molecules such as RNA might have helped the smaller molecules and enhanced metabolism to form life.

Wrapping Up

The blue planet, Earth is not new. It has been with us since 4.6 billion years. The fusion process that occurred in sun led to the formation of all eight planets. The heat, radiations, helium and oxygen helped in continuing the life for longer periods. Some scientists believe that life originated from ice glaciers. While other scientists believed that simple and small organisms led to the evolution of life. But, there is no theory that clearly answers questions related to life’s beginning on the Earth.

Recent Post : Qualification required for MBA Admission.

Requirements for Engineering High School

Candidates need to meet with various eligibilities for acquiring admissions in recognized engineering colleges. In 2013, education boards gave pretty much importance to 12th standard marks. It was declared that students must have got decent marks in 12th class’s physics, chemistry and maths along with the marks of entrance examinations. Therefore, candidates need to work hard right from high school for making a better career in the engineering profession.


According to particular engineering branch, students need to work well in specific subjects. Only the selection of non-medical in 12th class is not enough. But, students should also develop the better understanding on particular subjects before starting the 4-year engineering degree. You must set your engineering goals right from the high school. Let us learn some requirements that students must fulfill in schools for acquiring admissions in popular engineering colleges. Here you can also know about qualifications required for MBA admission .

High School Academic Course Requirements

As there are a large number of branches in which students can complete the engineering degrees, so it is necessary to have basic knowledge about specific engineering subjects. By having particular engineering knowledge, students can start working in the specific direction as needed in the engineering degree. Below are some engineering courses and various subjects taught in high school:

  1. Electrical and Engineering Course – It is one of the most common engineering course. Candidates learn pretty much about suitable power machines, devices, and tools under this engineering course. They study physics, chemistry and other basic subjects in the first year of this educational course. And in subsequent years, candidates learn about definite electrical subjects. In the high school, students must work well on these topics for becoming a better electrical engineer:
  • Calculus and vectors
  • Chemistry
  • Physics
  • English
  • Advanced Functions

More than 70% marks are required in all these subjects for appearing in popular entrance examinations.

Engineering eligibility-criteria

  1. Software Engineering Course – The second engineering course that contains particular designing material is called as CS or IT course. After understanding basic subjects in the first year, candidates study particular designing ad language subjects for becoming a better software engineer, Another thing which is required for doing wonders in software engineering is better coding knowledge.

Candidates must do a particular programming course in 11th or 12th class for becoming a decent software engineer.

Students must have specific work experience under one or more high-level language for availing better results. The most popular languages that are taught in software engineering courses are

  • JAVA
  • C, C++
  • PHP
  • IOS
  • MY SQL

Candidates who want to become better software engineer should focus on computer fundamentals right from the schooling period. Students should attend practical classes that occur in the computer labs. Almost all the schools have made it compulsory to pass the computer subject with decent marks. Therefore, the success of a software engineer depends pretty much on the computer fundamentals studied during the schooling period.

  1. Chemical Engineering Course – This engineering course contains specific chemistry concepts. Although the chemical engineering course also explains about physics, maths concepts it largely focuses on chemistry issues. Some particular chemistry concepts that are studied in the chemical engineering courses are
  • Chemical Equilibrium Concept
  • Stoichiometry
  • Periodic Table
  • Lewis Structure
  • Rate of Chemical Reactions

School students need to focus on these concepts for completing chemical engineering degree with decent marks. Also, specific entrance examinations contain the chemistry problems related to these concepts. So, candidates need to work pretty hard on these chemistry concepts for clearing entrance exams.

engineering success

Other Requirements for Engineering Degree

  • Candidates must study four specific units English especially the composition and literature unit
  • Candidates must understand three particular units in science and social studies
  • Candidates need to study particular algebra, geometry and trigonometry units
  • Candidates need to have good knowledge about particular communication language especially English


Students who want to take admission in decent engineering college needs to work hard right from the schooling period. They require more than 60% marks in 12th class physics, maths, chemistry and one vocational subject. They need to work pretty much on particular engineering subjects. They need to study algebra, geometry, calculus, composition and literature concepts. If a students work well in academics right from the time when he/she starts education then only he/she can become the better engineer in the particular field.

The Top 6 Benefits of Becoming an Engineer

Engineering, the application to solve physical problems offers a wonderful career. Through the 4 year engineering course, you can not only learn about different tools, devices but can also acquire physical skills by working himself on the machines and benefits. Students opt for engineering because of several reasons. Whether it is the through parents will or it is through own choice, students would surely get benefits from the engineering. But one thing is compulsory student needs to do engineering degree in particular branch without utmost seriousness and sincerity. If you are serious right from the beginning then only you can make a better career in engineering. This article provides you essential information about top 6 benefits that can be acquired by becoming an engineer.


1. Jobs


The first and important benefit of selecting engineering is that a person can get the job at very early age. Unlike other professions in which persons need to spend pretty much time in gaining experience, in engineering a student can stand on his/her feet just after a span of four years. Also, people would not have the fear of losing engineering jobs after acquiring it once. Pretty much satisfication is provided by engineering jobs. Last but not least engineering jobs provide increment more early than the government and other profession jobs. Earn decent amounts of money and work for lesser times by selecting the engineering degree.

2. Huge Career Opportunities

career apportunity

If you are new to engineering, then you need to know that you can mould your career in different pathways after once selecting the B.Tech degree. Whether you want to become an astronaut, a scientist, a president or a filmmaker, you can do that by studying the specific degree. According to your choice and requirements, you can earn decent amount of money by selecting the specific engineering course. Along with the regular 4 year degree, students can also learn other medical and law courses. Thus, you can enhance your different skills by selecting the engineering degree.

3. Difficult Work

Hard Work

You need to know that any engineering job is not very easy. You need to learn a lot about working on different tools and machines. You would be assigned tough tasks that need to be completed in shorter durations. By operating the mind in different strategies, students acquire a better knowledge of any particular work. He/she gets good information for finishing specific work. Only an engineer who had practice a lot on different tools can perform difficult and complicated work.

4. Creativity


By spending pretty much time on certain numerical and questions, candidates acquire certain mental skills. They learn how to solve difficult tasks in the lesser amount of time. By working on various machines, tools and machines students develop large number of skills. If students themselves work on tools, they observe the changes and never forgot the strategy of implementing particular tasks. In particular 6-week and 6-month training, students are made to work on real-world problems; open-ended system and other applications. They are made to find the solutions to the problems by using their mind. All these things result in creativity and innovation. Students come up with better results and go on acquiring more and more success in specific technology.

5. Need


Another benefit is that engineering profession has a very bright future. It is impossible to calculate the time when we would not require electronic gadgets, cars, motorcycles and other machines. We can imagine our life without all these machines. Therefore, particular mechanical, electronics and software engineers are needed for designing the materials needed by the society. One thing is assure that you can’t sit idle after doing a four year bachelors degree.

6. Financial Benefits

Financial Benefit

Along with other benefits, engineer also avail some financial benefits. IT companies offer very high packages to meritorious and bright engineering students. Also, candidates get travelling and accommodation charges from the companies. After spending 3 months in the software companies, candidates get great amount of growth. It would be not wrong in saying that engineers enjoy a lavish lifestyle.


Many wonderful benefits can be availed by becoming an engineer. A person can get the decent job by completing the 4 engineer degree. According to the preference an engineer can become an astronaut, a scientist, a president or a filmmaker. Candidates acquire huge sense of creativity in the four-year engineer course. It is important to realize that engineering has a very bright future. Engineers can enjoy a lavish lifestyle because of very high salary.

Recent Post : Requirements for engineering high School.

How NRIs can apply for PAN card in India

The PAN card is a nationally accepted photo identity card that enables an individual or a company to do transactions, seek for a loan or an ITR. It is issued by the government of India under its department of income tax. The PAN card consists of some important details of an individual as the name, date of birth, address and the most crucial PAN number. Every PAN card holder has a unique ten digit PAN number which remains unchanged. The income tax department of our country issues this alphanumeric code. You may make alterations in your PAN card regarding your name or residential address and update it to the concerned income tax department. However you cannot make any change with the registered PAN number, it remains the same.


What is the use of PAN card for the Income Tax Department?

The PAN card allows the IT department to link all economic transactions with every person. It ensures that the tax payments are regularly made or not. As all the transactions are routed through IT department, they are well equipped with the documents. Hence, a systematic record is maintained. For more information one can always check the online website of the department. To abide the income tax laws fully, you must file for a PAN card.

What are the advantages of PAN card?

PAN card doesn’t come with loads of benefits for a person, however if you are engaged in buying and selling properties, shares or debentures then it is rather compulsory to have one. Also, it is beneficial to the tax payers as it decreases the TDS (tax deductible at source) by around 10%.

What is the use of PAN card for an individual?

According to the Income Tax Act 1961, the most significant purpose of this card is that it categorise you under the tax paying citizen. The PAN, when distributed, is supervised by The Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) through the IT department of India. The PAN serves as a valid, reliable and permanent identity proof which lets you carry on the financial transactions easily. It also helps you while opening a Demat account, salary account or a bank account. The Income Tax Department of India also uses your PAN while monitoring your transactions.


Why it’s necessary to own a PAN card?

It may not be possible for you to do the heavy financial transactions. However as an alternative, there is a provision of using form 61 and form 60 instead of PAN. For the transactions below Rs 50,000, it is not compulsory to have a PAN if you are an NRI or a farmer. It has defined the process of buying and selling. For the government of India, it serves as a helping hand while calculating the money flow in the domestic territory.

What is the procedure of applying for a PAN?

The process for getting a PAN card is very simplified. Being an NRI one can apply it himself or through an agent. The form 49AA is downloaded initially from the NSDL website or Income Tax department, UTIISIL. The form is also available at any nearest TIN Facilitation Centre or the income tax PAN service department.

It is not essential to be in the country for applying it; you may do it when you are overseas. The documents stated below are needed to accelerate the process.

  1. A passport size photograph
  2. An identity proof
  3. Assessing Officer Details
  4. Residential address


How long does the process take?

One may not ensure you with the exact period for the procedure as is it a government task. But, it will be done within 20 days, including the shipping process to abroad from the date of applying.

What is the shipping process?

The income tax department of India sends the PAN card through India Speed post, the government courier service. You can get yourself updated with its consignment number, by checking the status online. There is also other options of shipping as per your preference like FEDEX, DHL, UPS, etc. but the extra cost coming with them is to be borne by the respective applicant.

Thus, even NRIs can apply for PAN CARD and the steps are very simple.

Recent Post : Qualifications required for MBA admission.

What qualification required for MBA admission?

The MBA or Master’s in Business Administration program has become a much sought after degree in India and especially Punjab. Over the years the demand for higher education has sky rocketed with more and more students acquiring college degrees. Employers in major corporations, including tech and IT are looking for MBA graduates in Sales, finance, marketing and even Economics.

Mba admission

The level playing field has been raised and the job market in India has become even more competitive than before. More and more students in India and Punjab are opting out of the conventional engineering or medical fields to pursue MBA programs in the hope of broadening their career options. The MBA program offers not only broader career options, but better salaries, business opportunities and better management positions in MNC’S as well other large corporates.

The year 2013-2014 saw a meteoric rise in the number of B-Schools offering MBA programs. The approximate surge in B-schools climbed from only 3000 in 2009-10 to a staggering 4500 in 2013-14. As more students opted for the degree, the rising demand necessitated the creation of several tier 3 and tier 4 business schools. Most if not all these b-schools offer the MBA program in regular, part time as well as distance learning formats. While most students choose the regular format of attending B-schools because of the obvious benefits of networking and being part of a larger consolidate business network, many still opt for the part time and distance learning formats to earn the MBA degree, which by itself promises better career options.

While different schools, including the leading IIM’s and other top schools such as the Indian School of Business (ISB) and S.P. Jain Institute of Management have certain special MBA qualification requirements, on the whole, the basic qualification requirements for an MBA degree remain the same.

Let’s look at the basic qualification requirements for an MBA program in India:

  1. You should have passed your 10+2 exams.
  2. You should have secured at least 50% in any subject in a graduate/college degree or 45 % for SC/ST or persons with disability (PWD) category.

Note: The Bachelor program should be a minimum format of at least 3 years or 4 years.

  1. As mentioned above there are 3 different ways of securing the degree: distance learning, regular and part time.
  2. In the event of a CGPA system the equivalent percentage would be based on the equivalence certified by the university / institution from where they have obtained bachelor’s degree.
  3. Take either the CAT OR MAT exams. (CAT is the common admissions test for MBA’s and MAT is the Management aptitude test.)
  4. Depending on how you score, in any of the above exams, you can qualify for different top B-schools in the country.

Here is a short list of the best B-schools in India:

  1. IIM, Ahmedabad
  2. IIM, Delhi
  3. IIM, Calcutta
  4. IIM, Bangalore
  5. ISB

Recent Post : The top benefits of becoming an Engineer.

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